Week 3 – : Philosophical Background- Some threads of thoughts behind the open educational resource movement

Hello all again

I will begin my assignment by discussing the age of Enlightenment.The term refers to the intellectual movement which advocated reason as the primary basis of authority. and         a number of scholars simply use the beginning of the eighteenth century as a default date.The Enlightenment period considered public education as a main tool of individual and collective emancipation. The era is marked by such political changes as governmental consolidation, nation-creation, greater rights for common people, and a decline in the influence of authoritarian institutions such as the nobility and Church.

Compared with the popular education the latter strongly relies on the democratic ideal of the Enlightenment. Following the split of the first International at the 1872 Hague Congress between the Anarchists and the Marxists, popular education remained an important part of the workers’movement.So, similar to the Enlightenment ideas,The popular education advocates learning for workers and peasants as part of their legitimate rights.As the Enlightenment represents the basis for modern ideas of Liberalism against superstition and intolerence, this indicates that it baved the way before the coming of popular education.

Folk high schools are institutions of adult education that do not grant academic degrees. They are common in the Nordic countries and in Germany. The concept was originally inspired by the Danish writer, poet, philosopher and pastor Nikolaj Frederik Severian Grundtvig (1783–1872), who was inspired in part by the Condorcet report during the 1789 French Revolution.This means that there is a similarity between this trend and the popular education as they both advocate free education and address public people.However, the difference remains in the fact that Folk high schools unlike Popular education are much closer to the institutions known as folkeuniversitet,meaning that they are connected to a regular universities. 

Coming now to The Public library, the term is similar to the popular education and folk high schools in that it is uccessible by  the puplic but it differ in that it is distincted from school or any other special educational education in that its mandate is to serve the public’s information needs generally (rather than serve a particular school, institution, or research population. It contain a wide range of tools and programmes for all ages and classes including children and infants.

The free software movement is a new social movement which aims to protect the rights of users to access and modify software.We can say that it is similar to the popular education and folks high schools in that it advocates the freedom of learning for all computer users, yet it differs in that it advocates Technology rather than ethics.

To conclude finally with Standing on the Shoulders of Giants the term is comparing the modern scholars of  12th century to the ancient scholars of Greece and Rome.It sums up the quality of the cathedral schools in the history of learning, and indeed characterizes the age which opened with Gerbert (950-1003) and Fulbert (960-1028) and closed in the first quarter of the 12th century with Peter Abelard. The term indicates that modernity and freedom makes dwarfs see further than giants because they are carried higher than them. So people need to be free in their thinking and giants in their learning like perhaps the cathedral schools with their lack of a well-rooted tradition and their freedom from a clearly defined routine of study. It is similar to the above trends of popular education, folk high schools and open libraries in its imposing the freedom of education but it differs in its concern with the past compared to the present.

wishing to meet your satisfaction

Thanks

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